Open research is “scholarly research that is collaborative, transparent and reproducible and whose outputs are publicly available” (European Commission, 2018, p. 4)
Open research applies to the entire research cycle, not just open access publishing. Open research extends to all disciplines and types of research, inclusive of protocols, data, code, software, publications, and more. Many elements of the research lifecycle can be made open, transparent, and reproducible.
European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. (2018). OSPP-REC : Open Science Policy Platform Recommendations, https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/5b05b687-907e-11e8-8bc1-01aa75ed71a1/language-en
The principles of Open Research will be reflected in the policies of public funders and organisations that promote greater public access to research. The principles apply to all researchers and all disciplines, and are:
'Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose' (The Open Definition)
The outputs of research, including publications, research data and software code, should be shared under an open licence wherever possible, in order to maximise opportunities for their consultation and re-use by others.
Examples of open licences include:
The Creative Commons licence suite includes versions with Non-Commercial and No-Derivatives terms. These are not open licences, because of the restrictions the terms place on re-use. But if the material cannot be made available under an open licence, it is still wise to publish under a standard licence that offers the closest approximation. CC BY-NC may not be an open licence, but it grants broad permission for use in research and teaching and other non-commercial activities.