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Harvard Referencing for Visual Material

This guide provides examples on how to reference visual material using the Harvard referencing style.

Citing printed maps

Hamburg - Schleswick-Holstein: SHELL Road Map                               Hamburg - Schleswick-Holstein-Unterelbe: SHELL Road Map                                               

Hamburg - Schleswick-Holstein: SHELL Street Map



Printed Map

In-text citation should include, Name of the Map maker/editor, Year of publication or issue.

Reference List should include, Map producer(s) or compiler(s) Name Year of publication Title of map. format, edition, scale, series name or number, Publisher, Place of Publication. 


Shell Company produced street maps in 1930s in Germany... (Shell Georg Wastermann 1934/35)

Reference list:

Shell Georg Wastermann 1934/35, Hamburg-Schleswig-Holstein, map, scale 1-4700, Shell-Strassenkarten No.1, [Rhenania-Ossage],  Germany.

NOTE: when information is not provided in the document use square brackets [ ] for the assumed date or place of publication, 

Atlas (with editor)

In-text citation should contain, Name of the Map maker/editor  Year of publication or issue.

.....the position of the new city is to be north of Melbourne (ed. Eales 2003, Map 36).

Reference List should contain, Map maker/editor, Year of publication. Title of map. Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

Reference list:
Eales, S (ed.) 2003, The Jacaranda atlas, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

Atlas (with no editor)

In-text citation should contain, Title of the map, Year of publication or issue, map number.In-text:
...the position of the new city is to be north of Melbourne (The Jacaranda Atlas 2003, Map 36).


 Reference List should contain,Title of the map, Year of publication or issue, Edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Reference list:
...The Jacaranda atlas 2003, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

Citing digital maps

Snooks (2002) does not provide guidance for maps. The following derivative elements should be cited consistently.

Electronic maps:

Google Earth

In-text citation should contain, Map publisher, Year of issue.

In text:
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference List should contain, Map Publisher with version (if applicable). Year data released. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Format/Data set (if applicable),  Date viewed, URL.

Reference List:
Google Earth 6.0. 2008. Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer, viewed 31 August 2011.<>.